My California son, Brendan, got me interested in SCTY a while ago. SCTY rents solar panels that generate electricity to individuals and to companies.
From an analytic point of view, it’s a complex and interesting firm. It may also eventually turn out to be an important component of the nation’s power generation. But it’s by at least a mile the riskiest stock I own (both Brendan and I hold small positions). For instance, SCTY is a JOBS Act company , so the financials it has published to date aren’t ready for prime time. Its business is heavily dependent on government subsidies of one type or another–and they’re shrinking. It’s part of–but not at the heart of–the Elon Musk empire. So holding it runs counter to the time-honored rule that you have your money as close as possible to where the entrepreneur has his–in this case, that would be Tesla, I think.
In this post, I want to use SCTY to illustrate that in the rental model, a company can have an immense call for capital in advance of the business generating much revenue. This can pose a significant risk.
First, note that I’m making the numbers simple (read: pretty much making them up) and that there are many, many more moving parts to what SCTY does than I’m going to write about here. But I think what I do say gets to the essence of the matter.
the business basics
1. Look at a typical rooftop solar panel array that SCTY installs on a single family house.
–the panels cost $10,000 to build and install
–they have a 30-year life
–the homeowner signs a 20-year contract to pay $50 a month to rent them.
2. In this industry, there’s some urgency to get panels installed on rooftops, at the very least because once someone has signed a 20-year contract, he’s not going to switch to another provider. So the first mover has a key advantage.
financing new customers
Suppose SCTY installed panel arrays on 50,000 rooftops last year and wants to install another 100,000 this year. What do the money flows look like?
Well, $30 million is coming in in rental income from last year’s installs. But this year’s installation program will require $1 billion!! in capital to complete. Where is this money going to come from?
In many senses, SCTY is a startup. It doesn’t have deep pockets or an existing cash-generating business to use to fund the panels. So raising $1 billion, and presumably more than that next year, is a formidable obstacle.
That’s the point of this post–that the upfront capital committment in a rental business–especially involving physical stuff–can be very large. From a financial point of view, some rental/service companies aren’t that much different from owning, say, an oil tanker, a steel blast furnace or a cement plant. Not so glamorous if you look at them this way.
what SCTY does
The SCTY solution? …the installed solar arrays are each sort of like a bond, that is, they pay a fixed amount of money each month for twenty years. At the end of that period, the array still has ten years of useful life and therefore hopefully a substantial residual value. If you package up a big bunch of them, the result doesn’t look that different from a collection of car loans or home mortgages. In other words, the bundle is a security that you can sell to institutional investors who are looking for fixed income investments. That’s a bare-bones version of what SCTY does. Of course, it doesn’t hurt that SCTY is run by a financial entrepreneur. Not every solar panel company is going to have the size or credibility to do this.