Mexico in the 1980s vs. US today

bull market = strong economy?

Does stock market strength always mean a booming economy?

The short answer is no.

Mexico in the 1980s

The best illustration I can think of is Mexico in the 1980s.  That economy was a disaster, which played out first of all in the currency markets, where the peso lost 98% of its value vs. the US$ during that decade.  Despite this, in US$ terms the Mexican stock market was hands down the best in the world over the period, far outpacing the S&P 500.

How so?

…a domestic form of capital flight is the short story.

An incompetent and corrupt government in Mexico was spending much more than it was taking in in taxes but was loathe to raise interest rates to defend the peso.  Fearing  currency depreciation triggered by excessive debt, citizens began transferring massive amounts of money abroad, converting their pesos mostly into US$ and either buying property or depositing in a bank.  This added to downward pressure on the peso.  In September 1982 the government instituted capital controls to stem the outflow–basically making it illegal for citizens to convert their pesos into other currencies (Texas, which had been a big beneficiary of the money flow into the US, will remember the negative effect stemming it had).

With that door closed, Mexican savers turned to the national stock market as a way to preserve their wealth.  They avoided domestic-oriented companies that had revenues in pesos.  They especially shunned any with costs in dollars.  They focused instead on gold and silver mines or locally-listed industrial companies that had substantial earnings and assets outside Mexico.  The ideal situation was a multinational firm with revenues in dollars and costs in pesos.

today in the US

To be clear, I don’t think we’re anything close to 1980s Mexico.   But it trying to explain to myself what’s behind the huge divergence in performance between companies wedded to the US economy (bad) and multinational tech (good) I keep coming back to the Mexico experience.  Why?

I don’t see the US economic situation as especially rosy.   Evidently, the stock market doesn’t either.  In tone, administration economic policy looks to me like a reprise of Donald Trump’s disastrous foray into Atlantic City gambling–where he made money personally but where the supporters who financed and trusted him lost their shirts.

What catches my eye:

–tariff and immigration actions are suppressing current growth and discouraging US and foreign firms from building new plant and equipment here

–strong support of fossil fuels plus the roadblocks the administration is trying to create against renewables will likely make domestic companies non-starters in a post-carbon world outside the US.   Look at what similar “protection” did to Detroit’s business in the 1980s.

–threats to deny Chinese companies access to US financial markets and/or the US banking system are accelerating Beijing’s plans to create a digital renminbi alternative to the dollar

–the administration’s denial of access to US-made computer components by Chinese companies will spur creation of a competing business in China–the same way the tariff wars have already opened the door to Brazil in the soybean market, permanently damaging US farmers

–not a permanent issue but one that implies lack of planning:  isn’t it weird to create large tax-cut stimulus but then until it wears off to launch a trade war that will cause contraction?

Then there are Trump’s intangibles–his white racism, his sadism, his constant 1984-ish prevarication, his disdain for honest civil servants, his orange face paint, the simulacrum he appears to inhabit much of the time, the influence of Vladimir Putin…  None of these can be positives, either for stocks or for the country, even though it may not be clear how to quantify them.   (A saving grace may be that the EU can’t seem to get its act together and both China and the UK appear to be governed by Trump clones.)

 

my point?

Two of them:

1.If you were thinking all this, how would you invest your money?

Unlike the case with 1980s Mexico, there’s no foreign stock market destination that’s clearly better.  China through Hong Kong would be my first thought, except that Xi Jinping’s heavy-handed attempt to violate the 1984 handover treaty has deeply damaged the SAR.  So we’re probably limited to US-traded equities.

What to buy?

–multinationals

–that are structural change beneficiaries

–whose main attraction is intellectual property, the rights to which are held outside the US,

–with minimum physical plant and equipment owned inside the US, and

–building new operating infrastructure outside the US, say, across the border in Canada.

As I see it, this is pretty much what’s going on.

 

2.What happens if Mr. Trump is not reelected?

A lot depends on who may take his place.  But it could well mean that we return to a more “normal” economy, where the population increases, so too economic growth, corporate investment in the US resumes, domestic bricks-and-mortar firms do better–and some of the air comes out of the software companies’ stocks.

 

 

is the US becoming “great again”?

At first glance, the performance of the S&P 500 would seem to say yes–the S&P 500 is up by 47% since the first trading day of January 2017.  That’s substantially better than Europe or Japan has done over the same time period.   On the other hand, the US–which caused the global financial crisis–was first out of the blocks in repairing ailing banks.

Look a little closer, however, and the evidence from the S&P is not so clear.  There are a number of factors involved:

–about half the earnings of the S&P come from outside the US

–major domestic industries like housing or autos have little representation in the S&P

–tech companies, which don’t employ a ton of people and many of which don’t need offices or showrooms, make up about a quarter of the index.

The Russell 2000, an index made up of mid-sized, mostly domestic firms, is–I think–a much better indicator of how things are going for the average American.

looking at US stocks

ytd

Russell 2000 = US-based, US-serving firms       flat

S&P 500 = half US/half foreign earnings         +3%

S&P 500 software = half US/half foreign earnings, no US plants needed      +13%

MSFT          +16%

Tesla        +100%

 

2 years

Russell 2000     +8%

S&P 500          +22%

S&P 500 software       +32%

MSFT          +98%

TSLA          +140%.

 

1/1/17 onward

Russell 2000          +23%

S&P 500          +47%

S&P 500 software        +75%

MSFT          +197%

TSLA          +270%

 

What’s going on?

To state the obvious, investors are much more interested in betting on forces of structural change than on the administration’s efforts to pump life into traditional industries.  It may also be that the market thinks, as I do, that the MAGA plan (if that’s the right word) will end up being a lot like Mr. Trump’s foray into Atlantic City gambling–where he profited personally but knew surprisingly little, with the result that the people who supported and trusted him lost almost everything.

What’s been running through my mind recently, though, is the resemblance between this US market and the Mexican bolsa in the 1980s.

More tomorrow.

 

 

 

 

 

Tesla (TSLA): dreaming and reverse engineering

As I’m writing this, TSLA’s market cap is around $160 billion, with the stock up 50%+ over the past week and having more than doubled in a flat market over the past month.

I have no real idea what’s behind the move  …desperate short covering?  …glitchy trading AI feeding on positive price momentum?  It looks crazy, though.

My thoughts:

–conceptually at least, we’re now living in a post-fossil fuel world.  This is much more evident in, say, Europe than in the US.  (The current administration here is clueless.  It actually favors the most heavily polluting fuels and is fighting industry efforts to keep US-made auto relevant in world markets through increasing fuel efficiency.  If this were a century ago, we’d be backing firewood.)

–the trickiest part of a car to make and maintain is the internal combustion engine.  Substitute big batteries and suddenly building is easier, manufacturing costs go down and you don’t need an extensive dealer network for sales and service.

Tesla is the leading brand name in electric cars.  There’s also some evidence that the manufacturing problems that plagued TSLA are now behind the company.

–we’re still in the “dream” or “concept” stage of TSLA’s development, so it’s very hard to gauge what the company is worth.  On the other hand, we can ask ourselves what the current share price implies must be already factored in, as follows:

—-let’s say that the market for automobiles is 100 million units/year, with 25% of those in China and 20% in the US.  Suppose TSLA can capture a 1% market share over the next few years.  That would mean manufacturing 1 million cars.  Let’s pluck numbers out of the air and say that they’ll sell for $40,000 each and have an after-tax margin of 20% (using margins is bad–never do it–but we’re just dreaming here).  That’s $8000 each, or $8 billion in total.

—-the point of this reverse-engineering is to see that the stock is now trading at 20x that annual earnings figure (market cap =$160 billion).  To buy/hold the stock at this point one would have to believe that the future for TSLA is better than I’ve just described.

—-how could that happen?:  the margin number I’m using is very high in conventional auto company history; there’s the issue of creating a network of charging stations to serve the cars; there’s also a (less important, I think) question of usability of electric cars in colder climates.  The biggest unknown, in my opinion, is how large a lead TSLA has on other would-be electric car makers.

Primary competition will likely come from Europe, where whose diesel emission cheating scandal has wrecked the market for conventional cars, thereby accelerating the move toward electric.   Their biggest impediment–ironically, a major point in favor of TSLA, is the backward-oriented posture of the administration in Washington.

On the other hand, given that TSLA has manufacturing operations in the two largest markets, maybe a 1% market share is too low.  Again, I have no idea.  But I think that’s the bet buyers today will be making, whether they realize it or not.

Keeping Score for January 2020

I’ve just updated myKeeping Score page for January.   weaker world economy = interest rates lower for longer = more buoyancy in stock markets

today’s drop in Chinese stock markets

The main stock markets in China, Shanghai and Shenzhen, opened this morning after the New Year holiday.  This was the first chance for mainland investors to express their opinions about domestic developments with the new coronavirus.

Both markets fell about 8%.  These are not markets I watch carefully, so all I really know is the headline number.  I’ve read, however, that about 3/4 of the stocks traded on these exchanges were “limit down.”  Like commodities markets in the US, authorities impose a daily maximum allowable price fluctuation.  In the case of China, it’s +/- 10%.  Limit down means that stocks spent part of the day–and closed–with sell orders at down 10% but no buyers at that price.

In other words, the 8% fall understates the concern in those markets.  On the other hand, much of the market volume comes, as I understand it, from retail investors on margin–the ultimate “dumb money” worldwide.  In most markets, and particularly in retail-driven Wild West-like ones in particular, broker selling to meet margin calls has no finesse at all.  Holdings are simply dumped into the market (a cynical mind like mine thinks brokers short the market in their own accounts at the same time).  I think this is what’s happening here.  So the fall shows the immaturity of these markets as well as investor fear.

Daily trading limits were a feature of many stock markets around the world until the large (the first one triggered by derivatives) global selloff in 1987.  Back then, it took the markets with daily trading brackets at least twice the time to stabilize as ones without collars.  In fact, some only began to heal (Spain, Thailand come to mind) as the daily limits were removed.

 

What I think is more significant as a read on Asian sentiment is that the Hong Kong stock market was up on the day.