James Tobin won the Nobel Prize for, among other things, commenting that company managements–who know the true value of their firms better than anyone else–should buy back shares when their stock is trading at less than intrinsic value. They should also sell new shares when the stock is trading at higher than intrinsic value. Both actions benefit shareholders and add to the firm’s worth.
True, but not, in my view, a motivator for most actual stock buybacks.
Managements sometimes say, or imply, that share buybacks are a tax-efficient way of “returning” cash to shareholders, since they would have to pay income tax on any dividends received. I don’t think this has much to do with buybacks, either. It also doesn’t make a lot of sense, since a majority of shares are held in tax-free or tax-deferred accounts like pension funds and IRAs/401ks.
the real reason
Why buybacks, then?
Years ago I met with the CEO of a small cellphone semiconductor manufacturer. We had a surprisingly frank discussion of his business plan (the stock went up 20x before I sold it, which was an added plus). He said that his engineers were the heart and soul of his company and that portfolio investors like me were just along for the ride. He intended to compensate key employees in part by transferring ownership of the company through stock options from outsiders to engineers at the rate of 8% per year!!
Yes, the 8% is pretty extreme. In no time, there would be nothing left for the you and mes.
Still, whether the number is 4% or 1%, the managements of growth companies generally have something like this in mind. They believe, probably correctly, that they won’t be able to attract/keep the best talent otherwise.
The practical stock option question has two sides:
–how to keep the portfolio investors from becoming outraged at the extent of the ownership transfer and
–how to keep the share count from blowing out as stock options are exercised. A steadily rising number of shares outstanding will dilute eps growth; more important, it will alert portfolio investors to the fact of their shrinking ownership share.
The solution? …stock buybacks, in precisely the amount needed to offset stock option exercise.
is there a better way?
What I don’t like is the deception that this involves.
However, would I really prefer to have companies allow share count bloat and have high dividend yields? What would that do to PE multiples? …nothing good, and probably something pretty bad.
So, odi et amo, as Ovid said (in a different context).