This is the question President Trump purportedly called his adviser, Michael Flynn, to ask at 3am one recent morning. Flynn, to his credit, said he didn’t know.
Perhaps the genesis of the inquiry is the odd position Mr. Trump has put himself in of criticizing Germany (and by implication the EU as a whole) for damaging the US by having a currency that’s too strong while berating China for damaging us by doing the opposite.
It may also be economists’ comments that the Republican Congressional proposal to introduce a value added tax on imports could trigger a sharp appreciation in the dollar, thereby making exports from the US that much less attractive.
What is the best strategy for the US?
First of all, we should recognize that there’s no generally accepted economic framework that deals with currency. There are lots of theories for particular aspects of currency relationships, but no one go-to theory.
Also, the US is in the unusual position of being the only universally accepted reserve currency, making the US is in effect the banker to the world. So rules that apply rigorously to others may not, for good or ill, hold so firmly for us.
In 30+ years of dealing with foreign currencies as an equity investor, I think the issue can be summed up in practical terms to the question: “If this country were a person, would I feel comfortable lending money to him?”
The factors that have meant the most to me are: political stability, the rule of law, growth-oriented government policies, no excessive government debt, prudent government spending, and no restrictions on being able to repatriate my funds. All other things being equal, mild appreciation of the foreign currency would be nice. But I would trade that away in a nanosecond for assurance I wouldn’t have a currency loss.
All this implies that the value of a country’s currency isn’t determined by a deliberate currency policy. Instead, it’s the result of overall conditions for doing business in that place, and of the effectiveness of government in providing a backdrop conducive for corporations to locate there.
One instructive recent example of what not to do: massive government-engineered currency depreciation has been the cornerstone of Abenomics in Japan. The main results so far have been to revive the fortunes of near-obsolete manufacturers, while retarding innovation and inducing an epic fall in the standard of living of ordinary citizens.
My advice for Mr. Trump? Press forward on tax reform and infrastructure spending. Establish meaningful vocational training to replace the VA-like stuff we have now. Don’t try to weaken the dollar; that’s a recipe for disaster.