A straightforward analysis of what Mr. Trump is doing would be:
–tariffs slow overall growth and rearrange it to favor protected industries. There’s no reason I can see to believe something different might happen in the US
–apart from the third world, protected industries tend to have domestic political clout but to be in economic trouble. In my experience, these woes come more from bad management than from foreigners’ actions
–the go-it-alone approach is a weak one, since it provides ample scope for a target country to shop tariffed goods through an intermediary
–the apparently arbitrary way the administration is acting will cause both domestic and foreign corporations to reconsider future capital investment in the US.
There are, however, two other issues that I think have long-term implications but which aren’t discussed much.
–tariffs may cause industries that have moved abroad to retain labor-intensive work practices (and continue to use dated industrial machinery) in a lower labor-cost environment to return to the home country. If such firms come back to the US, it won’t be with the old machinery. New operations will be very highly mechanized. In other words, one likely response to the Trump tariffs will be to accelerate the replacement of humans with robots in the US.
–as I see it, China is at the key stage of economic development where, to grow, it must leave behind labor-intensive work and develop higher value-added industries. This is very hard to do. The owners of low value-added enterprises have become very wealthy and powerful. They employ lots of people. They have considerable political influence. And they strongly favor the status quo. The result is typically that the economy in question plateaus as labor-intensive industries block progress. In the case of China, however, the threat that the US will effectively deny such firms access to a major market will kickstart progress and deflect blame from Beijing.
If I’m correct, the effect of trying to restore WWII-era industry in the US will, ironically, achieve the opposite. It will accelerate domestic change in the nature of work away from manual labor. And it will run interference against the status quo in China, allowing Beijing’s efforts to become a cutting-edge industrial power to gather speed.