trade wars

Recently President Trump announced plans to impose tariffs of 25% on imported steel and 10% on imported aluminum, citing national security reasons.  He followed this up with a Twitter comment that, for the US, trade wars are good–and easy to win.

My take:

–much of modern economics stems from study of the causes of the Great Depression of the 1930s.  The key factors:  the wrong fiscal and monetary response, world wide; and the imposition of tariffs to “protect” local industry.  These did substantial economic damage, deepening and prolonging the global slump instead.  The idea that Mr. Trump may not be aware of this is the really worrisome aspect of the current situation.


–the first-order effects of the proposed tariffs will, in themselves, likely be miniscule.  Domestic prices for both metals will rise.  As a result of that, and of possible tariff payments to the government, income will shift from the users of the two metals to Washington and to domestic producers of steel/aluminum.  Because of this, at least some metal fabrication will shift away from the US to other countries.  One EU-based maker of appliances has already suspended plans to increase its manufacturing capacity in the US.

–second-order effects will likely be larger.  The EU, for example, is indicating it will retaliate by placing large tariffs on several billion dollars worth of goods that it imports from the US.   Presumably, other affected countries will do so as well.


–there was a similar incident during the Obama administration involving Chinese-made truck tires.  Economists estimate that it resulted in the loss of 3,000 American jobs.  If there was anything good about that situation, it was that it was isolated–Washington understood this was a one-off payment to a domestic union for its political support.  Today’s concern is that, despite overwhelming economic evidence to the contrary, Mr. Trump actually believes that trade wars are good–and will continue to act on that belief.



protecting domestic industry

If his inaugural speech is any indication, a principal tool President Trump expects to use to enhance US economic performance is to help expand sunset manufacturing industries by protecting them against imports.   More useful action would be to emphasize improving the skill level of the workforce and to encourage innovation.  There may be a place for preventing foreigners from selling at below production cost (dumping) designed to stamp out competitors.  But by itself, and as a principal strategy, protection usually ends up making the economic situation worse, not better.

That’s because:

it stifles innovation, as we can see from the current parlous state of the Japanese economy, which embarked on a strategy of protection in the early 1990s.  That country still has domestic industry that’s state of the art circa 1980, but little that’s more recent.  The US auto industry, which Washington protected from foreign competition beginning in the late 1970s from the 1970s onward, is another example.

other countries retaliate when the borders are close to their products.  President Obama placed import duties on Chinese truck tires, effectively barring them from the US market.  China responded by taxing agricultural products sold there by US firms.

protection typically raises costs to local consumers, lowering their standard of living.  Mr. Obama’s headscratching move simply redirected the source of imported tires from China to Thailand–at much higher cost.  Economists estimate that this unintended (I hope) effect alone cost several thousand US jobs.


Let’s hope the president sticks to corporate tax reform and infrastructure spending.