In the aftermath of the financial crisis, the government has been considering the risks to financial stability posed, not only be banks but also by asset management firms. As part of this effort, the SEC is about to set new regulations for money market funds this week.
what money market funds are
One of the most important economic (and stock market) trends of the past half-century has been the emergence of focused single-purpose entities to compete with large conglomerates. In retail, specialty firms selling jewelry, toys, household goods or electronics have offered an alternative to department stores.
In finance, money market and junk bond mutual funds, have offered alternatives–to borrowers and savers alike–to commercial banks.
Money market funds have several important characteristics:
–they provide short-term, working capital-type loans to borrowers
–as mutual funds, they promise to accept daily subscriptions from savers and allow daily withdrawals in unlimited amounts
–they have typically offered higher yields than bank savings accounts–sometimes far higher yields
–they can offer the ability to write checks against deposits
–they promise, at least implicitly, to maintain net asset value at a stable $1 per share. In other words, they promise that, like a bank deposit, you won’t lose any of the principal or interest you have in the fund
–because a money market fund is not a bank, its deposits are not government insured. The “no loss” promise relies solely on the good will and financial strength of the investment company offering the product.
According to the Investment Company Institute, US money market funds currently hold $2.57 trillion in assets. That’s a lot of money.
In times of stress, the warts in money market funds begin to show.
They come in two related varieties:
–as a practical matter, many funds are so large that they might not be able to meet redemptions if large numbers of shareholders lost faith in either the industry or a particular fund and headed for the exits,
–because money market funds compete with each other primarily on yield, inevitably someone (or more than one) will hold his nose and make a sketchy loan simply because the interest payments are high. In a crisis, such loans may not be worth what a fund paid for them; in the worst case, the borrower will default. In past crises, including 2008-09, there have been times when dud loans are big enough to make it questionable whether the real NAV of a given fund should still be $1.00 and not $.99. These situations have typically been resolved by the management company that offers the fund buying the securities in question from its money market fund at face value. But there’s no guarantee this will happen in the future. And a single fund that “breaks the buck” by writing down assets in a crisis could easily spark an industry-wide panic.
This week the SEC is expected to issue new money market rules to meet these concerns. They’ll include:
–many money market funds that don[‘t exclusively own Treasury securities will be required to have a floating NAV, and
–funds will have the ability to suspend redemptions in times of financial stress and/or impose withdrawal fees on those wishing to get their money back.
I think new rules will have their greatest impact on the investment practices of money market funds. They’re now generally regarded as a utility-like service that requires little investment skill or management oversight to run. That will change. No firm will want to be the first to impose withdrawal fees or suspend redemptions. Certainly, no one will want to destroy their reputation for financial integrity by recording an NAV different from $1.00. As a result, management oversight will increase and investing practices will become more conservative.
For all practical purposes, NAVs will remain stable at $1.00.
For savers, the FDIC insurance offered by bank deposits will become a bit more attractive. Since, however, 2/3 of money market shares are held by institutions, I don’t think there will be a massive shift away from money market funds when the new rules take effect.