inflation in the 1970s
The most recent US experience with a real inflationary spiral came in the late 1970s. In early 1977, prices were rising at a 5% annual rate. A year later, inflation was running at 7%. A year after that, the number was 9%, with 14% posted in early 1980. Then Paul Volcker was appointed as Fed chairman. He pushed the Fed Funds rate from 11% to 20%, creating a deep recession but breaking the back of the inflationary psychology that was feeding the accelerating rate of price rises.
There’s an academic debate, itself with political dimensions, as to what caused the spiral in the first place. One side says it was a series of mistakes by the Fed, whose inflation forecasts were systematically too low–that therefore its setting of short-term interest rates(the main tool it used to regulate the economy) was, too. The other side says it was Washington’s political meddling.
who lived through it?
If you were in your mid-twenties in 1975, when the world was just emerging from a horrible recession (the UK had to call in the IMF to rescue its economy), and the subsequent inflation problem was just being ignited, you’d be in your sixties now.
In other words, virtually all commentators about the perils of inflation today have no practical experience with the phenomenon. Most of them are clueless.
two parts to runaway inflation
In my view, for what it’s worth, runaway inflation has two characteristics:
1. money policy that’s too accommodative (read: interest rates are too low), and that stays that way in the face of rising inflation, and
2. a resulting mindset change that accepts rising inflation as a fact of life and seeks to benefit from it.
how people deal with rising inflation
I’ve seen this behavior in the US in the late 1970s, and also in high-inflation emerging economies around the world since then:
1. The price of everything is going to be higher tomorrow than it is today. So you should buy now, rather than wait. That’s true of everything …houses, cars, clothes, appliances. If you have to borrow, do it! In fact, if you can borrow at a fixed rate, inflation will probably soon make the loan look like a gift from the lender and you’ll profit from that, too.
Companies will load up on extra raw materials inventories, expecting to profit from holding them while prices rise.
2. Workers will look for protection from inflation through contracts where wages are indexed for inflation (wages will rise in lockstep with the general price level). Companies will look for the same in multi-year sales agreements. Many contracts signed in the 1970s had prices indexed to the CPI or other indices that overstate inflation. Good for the seller, but this also added to the inflation problem.
3. Economists talk a lot about “money illusion,” the idea that most people can’t figure out how fast prices are rising. So they’re satisfied with, say, a 5% raise when prices are going up by 8%. In reality, that’s a 3% wage cut, after inflation. Of course, once you’re aware of this possibility, you’ll ask for a 10% pay increase–fueling the inflationary fires.
4. Investors of all stripes will look for assets that will protect them from rising prices. Typically, these would be physical things, like property, oil and gas or metals. At the same time, they’ll shun financial assets. Investors may even short financial assets by borrowing heavily, at fixed rates when possible.
In fact, in the late 1970s many companies made what turned out to be disastrous acquisitions as they tried to work the inflation game, with, say, an industrial parts maker borrowing heavily to buy a coal mine or a chain of hotels. These turned into almost certain recipes for Chapter 11 after inflation was tamed.
At one time in Brazil, investors bought used cars and stacked them up in their back yards as inflation hedges. Sounded good at the time, but…
5. Stock market investors will look for hard-asset companies or firms that can grow their profits at a faster rate than nominal GDP. This excludes most defensive industries, like telecom or gas/electric utilities, where rates of return on investment are regulated, or like staples, where large price increases cause consumers to look for cheaper substitutes.
an alternate reality
Sounds like an alternate reality? I think so.
But that’s the point. It shows how far away from an inflationary environment we are today.