The Trump administration has just triggered the latest round of tit-for-tat tariffs with China, declaring 10% duties on $200 billion of imports (the rate to be raised to 25% after the holiday shopping season). China has responded with tariffs on $60 billion of its imports from the US. Domestic firms affected by the Trump tariffs are already announcing price increases intended to pass on to consumers all of the new government levy.
It isn’t necessarily that simple, though. The open question is about market power. Theory–and practical experience–show that if a manufacturer/supplier has all the market power, then it can pass along the entire cost increase. To the degree that the customer has muscles to flex, however, the manufacturer will find it hard to increase prices without a significant loss of sales. If so (and this is the usual case), the company will be forced to absorb some of the tariff cost, lowering profits.
From an analyst’s point of view, the worst case is the one where a company’s customers are especially price-sensitive and where substitutes are readily available–or where postponing a purchase is a realistic option.
Looking at the US stock market in general, as I see it, investors factored into stock prices in a substantial way last year the corporate tax cut that came into effect in January. They seem to me to be discounting this development again (very unusual) as strong, tax reduction-fueled earnings are reported this year. However, the tax cut is going to be “anniversaried” in short order–meaning that reported earnings gains in 2019 are likely going to be far smaller than this year’s. The Fed will also presumably be continuing to raise short-term interest rates. Tariffs will be at least another tap on the brakes, perhaps more than that.
Because of this, I find it hard to imagine big gains for the S&P 500 next year. In fact, I’m imagining the market as kind of flattish. Globally-oriented firms that deal in services rather than goods will be the most insulated from potential harm. There will also be beneficiaries of Washington’s tariff actions, although the overall effect of the levies will doubtless be negative. For suppliers to China or users of imported Chinese components, the key issues will be the extent of Chinese exposure and the market power they wield.
PS Hong Kong-based China stocks have sold off very sharply over the past few months. I’m beginning to make small buys.